专升本英语自学备考指南

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  首先要确定你们所在单位近两年的录取分数线,作为今年分数线的参考。然后分别制定各个科目的目标分。毕竟时间有限,考生需要根据自己的实际情况将各个科目分轻重缓急,最终实现总分的最大化。建议考生用真题或者在德方“军考通”APP上免费公开的模拟题自我检测,这个有助于了解自己文化课的真实水平,方便制定下一阶段的自学计划,包括各个科目的目标分和学习时间侧重点问题。需要注意的是,专升本军考英语满分是100分,提分空间还是很大的,建议考生们要重视。

  建立好完善的知识体系,各个题型强化突破。 即一轮复习(需要2个月-3个月):

  1.突破词汇

  2.突破必考语法点。

  3.将新教材的题目弄懂弄透并且熟练掌握。

  ●词汇和语法点都是读懂句子的基础。而只有能准确理解单句,才能提高阅读,完型,翻译,写作等题型。

  事实上,学好语法产生的效果绝不仅仅是语法题上的得分,如果没有系统的语法知识,就无法理解阅读理解里的长难句,缺少对句子结构的分析,你将会无所适从。这时候,你应对的唯一方式,就是猜答案。

  况且,学好语法,考生最受益的部分是选择填空,翻译和写作三个题型。

  所以英语全面复习的主线其实就是词汇和语法同时搭配其他题型的练习。

  零基础但是总分却要求英语在50+的同学,就不能用以往的学习方法,因为你用了十几年证明,这个方法是无效的,你需要的是先提高英语的语感,培养英语的自信心,如何做到?这里我们强烈推荐英语的《单选专项突破700题》,因为每个句子都是讲单词,讲固定搭配,讲介词短语,讲语法,讲翻译,这样每天强行学习10个句子,两个月的时间你的词汇量能达到基本要求,翻译普通的句子就至少可以做简单的阅读理解和翻译了,然后再看总分对英语单科分数的要求再做突破。

  英语有一定基础需要进一步提高的同学,如果目标分在70分以上甚至80分以上,那么提分的关键是基本没有词汇障碍且明确语法考点。

  具体建议:①背诵单词小册子中的高级词汇;②突破语法考点,真正知道为什么;③ 把新教材的题目刷三遍以上。

  推荐你们看“军考通”视频课中的《考点精讲》视频课,建议根据19年的真题分析从近3年必考的高频语法章节入手。要求在进行单选题的练习时,能够准确判断题目的考点。

  ●关于阅读和完型提高的方法

  零基础的同学在视频课看到一个月的时候可以尝试做一些阅读理解,建议从高中的教材里面找一些相对简单的入手。做阅读和完型时要注意:首先题目难度从简入难。对于较为简单的文章,第一遍不要查单词,尽可能自己选择答案,在文章中把题目对应的信息句标记出来。第二遍查询生词并且整理记忆。第三遍把文章通读几遍,去理解整段话乃至整篇文章。2个月后词汇过关了,阅读和完型就可以过度到大学英语难度。到时再完成了专升本新教材的习题之后,可以再去做军考通平时练手六套卷和考前必做六套卷。

  有一定基础的同学,可点击文章《德方老师说:军考英语阅读,应该这么做》

  ●对于翻译和写作这两个题型,特别强调一下。

  根据20年大纲,翻译和作文分值由25分增加到30分。并且翻译题型由原来的5个汉译英句子翻译改为将汉语段落翻译为英语。那么翻译这一题型无疑是加大了难度。

  翻译要想得到理想的分数,要求考生有一定的词汇量,句型也有一定的积累。对于基础较薄弱的考生,可以先从英译汉入手,那么还是前面提到的,先从英语句子(单选题)入手。只有能做到英译汉,才能汉译英。此外,把较好的阅读段落作为翻译练习的材料。

  至于写作,专升本的写作这几年考查的都是议论文题材,但是议论文又分为不同类型,比如“正反观点类”、“How to类(解决问题类)”。建议同学们积累议论文的模板,但是一定要结合具体的作文题目去练习写作。对于实在无从下笔的考生,建议先借助例题列出大纲,然后围绕大纲自己尝试写一些单句,然后在过渡到写整段话。

  强化薄弱点,做仿真模拟试卷。即二轮复习(需要至少1个月)

  在通过一轮复习建立起较完善的知识体系并且将新教材的题目弄懂熟悉之后,建议做3套德方20年的《平时练手卷》或者《考前必做卷》,然后进行分析,看各个题型的得分情况,分析哪些考点掌握的牢靠,哪些考点得分不满意,哪些题型是因为遗忘或者不细心丢分。

  1.查缺补漏,专项强化。

  总结出试卷容易失分的考点,按照考点进行强化。首当其冲是解决自己因为遗忘或者粗心导致丢分的知识点考点,需要大量的专项练习题帮助你迅速熟悉和巩固,德方20年推出的《二轮复习学案》就非常适合,因为学案是按章节考点对题目进行分类,每个考点对应足够的习题,内附习题来自往年教材、老师课堂经典用题、学生易错习题。这样你听完《考点精讲》视频课,然后迅速去自己做十几道甚至于几十道题目对这个题型进行巩固。

  2.综合试卷,仿真模拟。

  做完专项练习后再用德方军考的模拟题进行模拟考试,检测之前的考点漏洞是否已经得以解决。也总结下还有哪些不该错的失分点,然后再通过《二轮复习学案》去强化。如此反复,直到每次都能达到甚至超过目标分。越是到后期,越是建议考生多做综合试卷,限时训练自己的考试能力,最终把知识完全转化为分数。

  

新视野大学英语3读写教程教案unit8Legal and Moral Implications of学习网

Unit 8 Teaching Plan

Time Allotment

Period 1

Period 2

Period 3

Period 4

Pre-reading

Global reading

Detailed reading

Detailed reading

Post-reading

Section B

Section A Legal and Moral Implications of Cloning

Teaching objectives:

1. help the Ss to understand the main idea and grasp the structure of the text;

2. help Ss to grasp the key language points and grammatical structures in the text;

3. conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities centered upon the theme of the unit

Background information:

1. Cloning: The process of making a genetically identical organism through nonsexual means.

2. Bill Clinton: the 42nd President of the United States (1993-2001).

3. DNA: (deoxyribonucleic acid 脱氧核糖核酸) the chemical at the center of the cells of living things which controls the structure and purpose of each cell and carries genetic information during reproduction.

Pre-reading: Questions & Answers

1. From a medical standpoint, what are the positive and negative effects of human cloning?

2. From a social and moral standpoint, do you think cloning would be a good thing for humans?

3. What is your opinion of genetic engineering, i.e. the deliberate altering of genes to create human beings according to certain requirements?

Global reading

1. Text Analysis: Main Idea and Devices for Developing It

Main idea of the text: When a world with human clones was suddenly within reach, people’s reactions to it were strong and varied. They puzzled over a number of questions about the legal and moral implications that had arisen from cloning.

Devices for developing it:

Listing(列举法):

In the main part (the third part) of the passage, the author lists as many as 6 puzzles on the issue of cloning.

Why would anyone want to clone a human being in the first place? (Para. 4)

Will it be possible to clone the dead? (Para. 6)

Would a cloned human be identical to the original? (Para. 8)

What if parents decided to clone a child in order to harvest organs?(Para. 11) How would a human clone refer to the donor of its DNA? (Para. 14)

What are the other implications of cloning for society? (Para. 17)

Discussion(讨论法): The author deals with the 6 common puzzles by offering different opinions from different experts through the device of discussion.

Puzzle 1: Why would anyone want to clone a human being in the first place? (Para. 4)

Discussion: Most experts consider the human cloning falls into two broad categories: 1) parents clone a child to provide transplants for a dying child or to replace that child, and 2) adults might want to clone themselves. (Para. 5)

Puzzle 2: Will it be possible to clone the dead? (Para. 6)

Discussion: Perhaps, if the body is fresh, says one expert. The cloning method used by Wilmut’s lab requires combining an egg cell with the nucleus of a cell containing the DNA of the person to be cloned. And that means that the nucleus must be intact. Cells die and the cell nucleus begins to break apart after death. But, yes, in theory at least it might be possible. (Para. 7)

Puzzle 3: Would a cloned human be identical to the original? (Para. 8)

Discussion: Most of the physical differences between originals and copies are so minor that detection of them would require a sophisticated laboratory. The only possible exception is bearing children. Wilmut and his coworkers are not sure that Dolly will be able to have lambs.They will try to find out once she’s old enough to breed. (Para. 10)

Puzzle 4a: What if parents decided to clone a child in order to harvest organs? (Para. 11)

Discussion: Most experts agree that it would be psychologically harmful if a child sensed he had been brought into the world simply as an organ donor. But some parents already produce second children with nonfatal transplants in mind, and many experts do not oppose this. Cloning would increase the chances for a tissue match from 25 percent to nearly 100 percent. (Para. 12)

Puzzle 4b: What if cloned animals could be used as organ donors? (Para. 13)

Discussion: …But the human body attacks and destroys tissue from other species. To get around that, one company is trying to alter the pig’s genetic code to prevent pig organs from being attacked. If the company’s technicians succeed, it may be more efficient to produce such pigs by cloning than by current methods. (Para. 13)

Puzzle 5: How would a human clone refer to the donor of its DNA? (Para. 14)

Discussion: …Judith Martin, in her writings under the name of “Miss Manners”, suggests the phrase, “Most honored sir or madam”. Why? “One should always respect one’s ancestors,” she says, “regardless of what they did to bring one into the world.”…The editorial director of one dictionary says that the noun “clonee” may sound like a good term, but it’s not clear enough. Instead, he prefers “original” and “copy”. (Paras. 15-16)

Puzzle 6: What are the other implications of cloning for society? (Para. 17)

Discussion: …Specifically, some experts are concerned about the creation of a new (and disrespected) social class: “the clones”. One expert believes the situation could be comparable to what occurred in the 16th century, when Europeans puzzled over how to classify the unfamiliar inhabitants of the Americas, and endlessly debated whether or not they were humans. (Para. 18)

2. Structure Analysis

Part I (Para. 1): With the success of cloning an adult mammal, the world was suddenly brought into the reality of human cloning.

Devices for developing it: Induction (归纳法) (Para. 1)

Specific statements: S.1-5 of Para. 1 + Conclusion: S. 6 of Para. 1

Part II (Paras. 2-3): This part is about the world’s strong and immediate responses in the wake of Wilmut’s announcement.

Devices for developing it:

Exemplification (举例法) Para. 2 Comparison (比较法) Para. 3

Part III (Paras. 4-18): This part offers complete or partial answers, from the up-to-date knowledge, to the six questions on the legal and moral implications of cloning.

Devices for developing it:

Classification (分类法), Comparison (比较法), Argumentation (议论法).

Part IV (Para. 19): This part is intended to reaffirm the author’s opinion that, although the list of questions could go on, people are just beginning to wonder about the future of the world after cloning.

Devices for developing it: Reiteration(重申法)

Detailed reading: expressions & patterns

1. word that…/of…关于······的消息

Word of his sexual scandal has been spread fast on the streets.

2. to succeed in (doing) sth. 成功地做了某事

If they succeed in establishing a cease-fire, the UN will send in peace-keeping forces.

3. to work for适用于;为······工作

China’s successful experience in economical development may work for most of the developing countries.

4. within (one’s) reach在伸手能及的范围以内,近的;方便到达

Rather than choose an ambitious goal beyond his reach, he would choose a goal within his reach.

5. to come to life活跃起来,表现生动

The dull play really came to life through the performance of these young people.

6. in the wake of 随着,紧跟着

Human societies have to suffer one disaster after another that follows in the wake of the ecological damage.

7. to draft guidelines for为······起草指导方针

She was busy drafting her speech for next month’s speech contest.

8. in the first place首先;起初;其一

It is unwise to love at first sight. In the first place you know little about each other and in the second it is hard for such love to last long.

9. to fall into可分成;属于

Things of a kind come together; people of a mind fall into a group.

10. to break apart分裂瓦解

The fortress is most liable to break apart from within.

11. in theory在理论上

Your plan for seeking happiness sounds fine in theory, but I don’t know if it’ll work in practice.

12. to be identical to/with . 与······一模一样;就等于

His indulgence in online love affairs is identical to neglecting his studies.

13. in terms of从······方面(来说); 根据;按照

He thinks of everything in terms of money.

14. What if…? 要是······怎么办 / 怎么样?

Don’t get involved in love games too early. What if you suffer from failure in love?

15. to bring into the world生产;生(孩子)

Since the electric bulb was brought into the world, mankind has been freed from his dependence on oil lamp or candle for light at night.

16. with sth. in mind出于······目的; 考虑到某事

Failure is the mother of success. With this in mind, he began to take a new look at the failure in this experiment.

17. to get around/round 克服; 回避 She is trying to get round this tricky problem by changing the subject.

18. to give birth to 生(孩子);产(仔) Our joint efforts finally gave birth to an effective solution to the problem.

19. regardless of不顾,不管

Those who, regardless of objective conditions, act as they think fit are less likely to succeed.

20. to leave confusion over留下难题,迷惑

The teacher’s explicit explanation left the students no confusion over that abstract theory.

21. to be concerned about/over担心,担忧

He has never been concerned about what others think of him.

22. to be comparable to/with可与······相比;类似于

In the eyes of some people, love is comparable to a maze, full of lures and traps.

23. to puzzle over努力思考

He puzzled over the problem for hours, without making head or tail of it.

24. to wonder about对······好奇;想知道;对······疑惑

I keep wondering about why some people can reap without sowing.

1. Typical patterns for advancing one’s arguments

1)原句: If cloned animals could be used as organ donors, we wouldn’t have to worry about cloning twins for transplants. (L. 48)

Pattern: If sb. / sth. could be / do sth., we wouldn’t have to worry about (doing) sth. else. ·

If everyone could realize natural resources are not inexhaustible, we wouldn’t have to worry about any blind exploitation of them.

If we can develop a strong sense of responsibility for society in the course of our college studies, our elder generations won’t have to worry about the future of China.

2)原句: “One should always respect one’s ancestors,” she says, “regardless of what they did to bring one into the world”. (L. 59)

Pattern: Sb. should always do sth. regardless of what / how sb. / sb. else does / did… ·

Regardless of whatever you do, you should always adhere to the

truth—no gains without pains.

Regardless of how highly people think of you, you should always keep in mind that modesty helps one make progress while conceit makes one lag behind.

2. Typical patterns for comparison and contrast

1) 原句:Like the Theory of Relativity, the splitting of the atom, and the first space flight, Dolly’s appearance has generated a long list of difficult puzzles for scientists, politicians, and philosophers. (L. 11)

Pattern: Like sth. else, the appearance / arrival / birth / invention of sth. new generates / produces / makes…

Like any other wars in history, the Iraq war has generated a long list of difficult postwar problems for the world.

Like other landmark inventions in the history of science, the birth of computer has made enormous differences to the way people study, live and even see the world.

2)原句: One expert believes the situation could be comparable to what occurred in the 16th century. (L. 68)

Sb. believes / thinks / agrees / argues sth. / sb. could (couldn’t) be comparable / similar to sth. / sb. else.

Many young people argue that love could be comparable to a vast expanse of water, which either nurtures your heart or floods your reasons.

The philosophers believe that the sorrow of separation could be comparable to a turmoil, which can neither be severed by scissors nor sorted out within reason.

3. Typical patterns for showing sb.’s reactions to sth.

原句:In the wake of Wilmut’s announcement, governments hurried to draft guidelines for the unknown, a future filled with incredible possibilities. (L. 6)

Pattern: In the wake of sth., sb. hurries / begins to…

In the wake of that failure, he hurried to look for chances of reproving himself.

In the wake of that successful exchange with foreigners, she began to become more conscious of the importance of English in cultural exchanges with foreign countries.

Post-reading:

1. Essay summary (P. 225)

2. Writing:

Views on Cloning

有人认为克隆技术的应用利大于弊,理由是······

也有人认为弊大于利,······

我的看法。

3. Finish the exercises

Unit 8 Section B

Who will take advantage of cloning

Teaching objectives:

1. to learn the reading skill;

2. to learn various attitudes toward and the use of cloning technology

3. to learn some words and phrases

Reading Skills: Identifying the Writer’s Purpose (II)

Do exercise XV on P. 235

When you read Passage B, scan it for clues that help you identify the writer’s aim. Use the questions below to guide your scanning, then decide: Is the text informational, persuasive or meant mainly to entertain?

1. The title is actually a question. By using a question as a title, the author tries his best to attract the readers’ attention. Obviously, it’s about the possibility or even legality of human cloning. The author gives us a thorough analysis as to who will take advantage of human cloning.

2. The language is formal and serious. Besides, it is emotional. The evidence for this is the repeated employment of rhetorical questions.

3. Altogether, there are seven questions, including the one in the title. Of the seven, four are rhetorical questions. They appear respectively at the end of Paragraph 2, Paragraph 3, Paragraph 4, and at the beginning of Paragraph 6.

4. Rhetorical questions are mainly intended to stir up the listeners’ or readers’ emotions, to put them off guard, making them ready to accept the speaker’s or writer’s opinion. Rhetorically, this is called emotional appeal. By using rhetorical questions four times, the author of this text is appealing to the readers to accept her idea “Don’t just say no to human cloning”. With all the above in view, we can see that the text is persuasive.

Language Points:

1. panic: n. (a) sudden very strong feeling of anxiety and fear 恐慌, 惊慌 v. (cause a person or an animal to) be affected with panic (使)惊慌

He got in a panic that he would forget his lines on stage.

The crowd panicked at the sound of the explosion.

2. send…into: make…enter a certain state 使处于(某种状态),使变得

Jane’s school report sent Father into a terrible temper.

3. at the prospect of/that …: when aware of the possibility of/that

He felt nervous at the prospect of seeing his new boss.

4. grow out of: have sth. as a source 由……而生,起因于; get too big for

Most international firms have grown out of small family businesses.

grow from 由...长大; 由...发展起来

grow in 增加; 在...方面成长

grow into 成长为; 变得成熟有经验

grow up 长大; 成人[熟]; 兴起; 发展

grow up into 长大成为……

5. constitute: v. 1. be or be considered as 是, 构成 2. form or make up (sth.) 组成,构成

Nuclear weapons constitute a very real threat to world peace.

6. gross: a. 1. clearly wrong 明显错误的 2. total总的,总共的

The court has made a gross mistake in sending an innocent man to prison.

7. make sense: be a wise course of action 有道理,合乎情理;明智

It makes sense to take care of your health.

bring sb. to his senses 使某人恢复理性

come to one’s senses (昏迷后)苏醒过来

in one’s right senses 有理性;神志清醒

out of one’s senses 失去理智,精神错乱

in a sense 从某种意义上说

make sense of 理解,弄懂······的意思

8. vivid: a. producing very clear, powerful and detailed images in the mind 鲜艳的, 鲜明的,生动的,逼真的

Parts of my childhood are so vivid to me that they could be memories of yesterday.

vivify v. 赋予生命;使活泼;使生动

vivisection n. (动物)活体解剖

revive v. 复活;苏醒;重演

revival n. 回复;苏醒;(R-)文艺复兴

survive v. 继续存在;较某人活得长久

survival n. 残存;残存的人(物)

9. turn out: prove to be; come to be known that 证实是,原来是

Things turned out to be exactly as the professor had foreseen.

turn against (使)变成和······敌对

turn down 减弱;拒绝,不接受

turn in 睡觉;上交

turn to 向······求助;求得安慰

turn up 出现

turn upside down 把······倒过来:把······完全颠倒

10. on/upon reflection: after considering sth. again 再考虑后

Upon reflection, I feel I made the wrong decision.

11. for the sake of sth.: in order to get or keep sth. 为了得到或拥有

He finally gave up smoking for the sake of health.

12. carry out: perform or conduct 进行,实施

If my instructions had been carried out, the accident would not have happened.

13. in the name of: using the name of; for the sake of 借······之名;为······目的

In the course of history, many cruel deeds have been committed in the name of religion.

14. stand a chance of: have a chance of (achieving sth.) 有可能(取得)

You stand a very good chance of passing the exam if you work hard.

15. resign oneself to: decide that one has to accept a difficult or unpleasant situation

The children have had to resign themselves to the fact that their father has gone.

pass on: hand or give sth. (to sb. else), esp. after receiving or using it oneself 传递,传给

He tried to pass the job on to me, but I soon got rid of it.

16. take a chance on: take a risk on 冒险

I don’t know whether we have enough money to sustain the whole holiday as we have planned, but I’m prepared to take a chance on it.

Post-reading

Do the exercises.?

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